Russian Solar Energetics
Permission is granted for the distribution of the 1st edition of this book.
The book describes a scientific discovery and invention of the Russian inventor, which in practice allowed to increase the efficiency of solar power stations hundreds of times.
Riga, Latvia 2015, D.J. Kravchenko© ISBN 978-9934-14-470-7
How to Increase The Efficiency of
a Solar Power Station HUNDREDS OF
…I value a single experiment more,
than thousands of opinions,
created by imagination only.
…A lazy man in his dishonorable peace
is similar to motionless swamp water,
which produces nothing
but stench and despicable vermin
…If you do something good with hard work,
hardship will pass, but good deeds remain,
but if you make evil with delight,
delight will pass, but evil remain.
…Science is a clear cognition of the truth,
Enlightenment of mind, immaculate jollification of life,
Praising of youth, supporter of the senility, builder of the cities,
regiments, stability of success in misfortune,
in happiness – the embellishment, always loyal inalienable companion.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov
In the immense Space, among billions of other worlds, among infinite numbers of different planets, elapses our tiny, defenseless, but glorious planet Earth.
People that live on planet Earth, such as me and you, are not only lucky residents of this small and gorgeous planet, but also the inhabitants of the great Space.
Adequately, this fact of belonging to the great Space lays on us the amount of certain responsibilities, towards not only our close people and ourselves, but towards the planet and the whole Space community.
At all times, the best representatives of the humanity were trying to relieve and lighten the terrestrial, physical human life. Only those, who were putting this noble goal as the main priority, were able to make scientific discoveries that brought benefit to the humankind and the surrounding environment. Only by virtue of these brightest and greatest minds, modern humanity, without thinking much about the initial origins of things, in the daily routine easily uses plumbing, electricity, telephony, television, etc.,
Indeed, it becomes impossible to reveal something precious and valuable to a person, who puts the need for material welfare on the pedestal of his life. That is what the history of mankind is proving and demonstrating to us. In truth, it is physically impossible that a certain person with only physical needs in his life, who is in the constant pursuit of the material well-being, ignoring his close people, his planet and even the Space, would have a lively mind capable of scientific discoveries beneficial to the whole human race.
However, the deal is completely different with the best representatives of the humankind. Not for even a single day they stop their scientifically-creative practice in various spheres of life, in order to discover something new, or to improve already existing things for the sake of mankind, the planet and most certainly the Space.
One of these spheres of life is energetics. It is safe to say that energetics is the integral part of the very basis of life.
Truly, human being is using energy since the ancient times up to the present days.
The fire was used from the beginning, and later on new possibilities were discovered. Finally, nowadays the main type of energy used by man – is the electrical energy. Electricity is essential even for coal mining and refining, as well as oil and gas production
Not a single educated individual will have doubts about the vitality of electrical energy, and the fact that without it, our modern life would be impossible. Furthermore, year after year the need of the electrical energy is continuously growing. Only in the last fifty years, the consumption of the electrical energy has increased fourfold.
That is the reason why in this field the constant scientifically creative research takes place, in order to find new innovative solutions not only for satisfying the growing demands of the humanity, but also for natural and ecological safety. Nature herself daily reminds us about the importance of the ecological safety, and unobtrusively shows us the right way to the development of clean and safe energetics.
One of these ecologically pure and renewable directions of energetics is the one that is called solar power, or precisely – photovoltaics – the solar power stations.
Solar power stations consist of solar batteries, accumulators, inverters and other necessary equipment.
Solar battery – is the combination of several photoelectric cells that directly convert solar energy into electric current.
Photovoltaics – is the method of electrical energy production, by using photosensitive elements for the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity.
Photoelectric cell (photocell) - electronic device, which directly converts photon energy to electrical power.
A Russian physicist – Alexander Grigorievich Stoletov, created the first photoelectric cell based on the external photoelectric effect, in the end of the 19-th century.
So far, there are several variations of solar power stations that are being developed:
Individual (private) solar power stations of low capacity.
Commercial solar power stations of low and medium capacity.
Industrial solar power stations.
In contrast to other ecological and renewable trends, solar energetics has a significant advantage, as it is quite mobile. This means that every person possessing his own solar power station that covers one man’s needs in energy, can easily pack it up and relocate to any other place of choice.
Another important advantages of solar energetics that are worth mentioning, are its complete quietness (there are no moving mechanisms), and of course its aesthetic exterior.
Yet another notional advantage in addition to everything mentioned before, is that only a small percentage of all the sunny days is enough for providing an amount if energy for the whole year. The main point here is to properly collect and preserve the energy. The use of only 0.0125% of the solar energy, could procure all current needs and demands of global energetics.
By having a solar battery, practically every individual can obtain his personal and independent source of electrical energy. The attachment of the accumulator to the solar battery creates possibilities of amassing the surpluses of energy, ensuring the household with electrical power during the nighttime and rainy days. By adding the inverter to the scheme, the direct electrical energy produced by the solar elements can be converted into alternating energy. Accordingly, by purchasing solar panels, accumulators and an inventor, we obtain a very real private solar power station.
Moreover, we get a power station that can provide us with two types of electrical energy at once: both with direct and with alternating current.
This fact is also one of the most important advantages of solar power stations. For instance, we can use direct current electricity straight for heating, which considerably reduces the costs of this particular need, since it eliminates the necessity of additional electrical devices.
Efficiency of the solar power station depends mostly on two technical factors (if we are not taking into account the environmental factors, as it was mentioned above):
The first factor is the ability to receive and convert solar energy to electrical energy.
The second factor is the ability of properly containing the received and converted solar energy.
With reference to the first technical factor – the ability of receiving and converting solar energy, so far nowadays the efficiency of solar panels (photovoltaic elements) lies within the range of 25%.
Official science reports:
The maximal flow of the solar radiation on equator is only 1020 W/m2. Average daily rates will be even lower (approximately three times lower), due to the fact that there is a change between day and night, as well as because of the changes in the inclination angle of the solar flow. During the wintertime these indicators are reduced even more, in about two or three times.
Let us divide the rate of 1020 W/m2 by three (the change of night and day) and we will get 340 W/m2 in a sunny day.
If we divide this number by three again, then we will receive 113 W/m2 during a winter day.
The number seem to be not that large, especially in comparison with the wind energetics. However, do not hesitate with the conclusions. Precisely in this place on the level of receiving the energy, I have made a new scientific discovery and created a new invention, which allows to raise the efficiency of solar power stations several times, and to reduce their sizes significantly. More detailed information on that aspect will come later.
In regards to the second factor of proper energy contain, everything seems to be much better. Better, but not ideal. That is why, working in this direction as well, another new invention had been created by myself that can help improving the factor of appropriate energy storage.
Economic efficiency of the solar power station can be measured by the volt-ampere characteristics, i.e. how many kilowatts of electrical energy does it produce, and how much funds should be spent on its purchase.
Right here in this place starts the most interesting part.
We have already been acquainted with the official science report on the matter.
Now, let us conduct a practical experiment.
We will take one solar element made from monocrystalline silicon. Its standard properties, i.e. what it is capable of, are as following:
Volts – 0.5
Amperes – 5.2
Watts – 2.6
Size – 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm(a square with sloping angles, as shown on the picture below)
During a sunny summer day with a light cloudiness, I have took the measurements and here are the results:
Volts – 0.5
Amperes – 3.4
Watts – 1.7
Therefore, on the area of 156.25 (12.5 x 12.5) square centimeters we get 1.7 watts.
One square meter is 10000 (ten thousand) square centimeters.
Accordingly, from one square meter we would get: 10000 divided by 156.25 = 64.
64 x 1.7 = 108.8 watts.
Afterwards I took another solar element.
Its properties are:
Volts – 5.0
Amperes – 45 mA
Watts – 0.225
Size – 6 cm x 4 cm or 25 square centimeters.
The received results:
Volts – 5
Amperes – 45 mA
Watts – 0.225
From one square meter we will get: 10000 divided by 24 = 416 x 0.225 = 93.6 watts.
It appears to be completely correct and everything is in order.
These results become possible when we are using purely mathematical approach, without taking into consideration the real conditions.
What happens in reality?
In reality we have volts and amperes, from which we obtain watts.
Let us try measuring once again, but this time in the correct way.
Ergo, on 156.25 square centimeters we obtain 0.5 volts and 3.4 amperes. On one square meter of the similar elements will fit about: 100 divided by 12.5 = 8. 8 x 8 = 64 pieces.
EACH ONE of these 64 elements produces 0.5 volts and 3.4 amperes.
If we connect all solar elements in series or parallel, we would still get the amount of 105.8 watts.
Now let us break one big element into smaller pieces and measure the indicators of these broken parts. The number of pieces after the arbitrary breaking of the solar element is not relevant to the case.
When we randomly break one of the elements, we will get an amount of smaller pieces that differ in size. After measuring the performance of these smaller pieces, it is possible to see that all of them have different ampere indexes and equal volt indexes. All the pieces, regardless of their size, will show 0.5 volts.
Thereby, from this practical experiment we see that every square centimeter produces 0.5 volts. I did not break the elements into even tinier pieces, which is why this value will remain basic for now. One square meter has 10000 square centimeters.
This means that by connecting the elements in series, from the surface of one square meter, practically, it becomes possible to receive 10000 x 0.5 = 5000 volts.
Remember this value of 5000 (five thousand) volts.
The question is how many amperes can we possibly get from the surface of one square meter?
In order to check it, we do not have to break anything.
This is because when we were taking measurements from the broken small parts, the smaller the part was the less amperes it was producing. Consequently, the smaller the actual area is, the less amperes we receive.
Thus, we need to take the basic value of 5.2 amperes of one solar element with the size of 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm.
One square meter of these elements contains 100 cm, divided by 12.5 cm = 8; multiply the value by 8 = 64. One square meter of solar elements with the dimensions of 12.5 cm, will contain 64 pieces.
The next step is to multiply 64 pieces by 5.2 amperes, and we will get an approximate value of 332.8 amperes.
Thereby, in practice, we see that if we connect the solar elements parallel, we will be able to get an approximate value of 332.8 amperes from one square meter.
So how much electrical energy converted from the solar energy, can we realistically rather than mathematically, get from one square meter?
In order to find an answer for this question, we need to take half of a square meter with volts, which has a value of 2500 volts, and half a square meter with amperes, which will have a value of 166.4 amperes. The next step is to multiply 2500 volts by 166.4 amperes, and we will get 416 kW*h.
Ergo, realistically rather than hypothetically and mathematically, from one square meter we can get the approximate amount of 416 (four hundred sixteen) kilowatt per hour!
At the same time, this is only 25% of all possibly produced energy due to the low efficiency of solar element. However, technologies are developing and constantly moving forward.
So is 25% too much or too little?
In comparison, I will point that my monthly consumption of electrical energy is about 300 – 350 kW. Therefore, my daily consumption is: 300 divided by 30 days = 10 kW. My hourly consumption is: 10 kW divided by 24 hours = 0.416 kW*h. It is understandable that this consumption is occurring irregularly, but this is already a completely different question.
It is not too little after all!
Just in one hour from one square meter, although under the ideal conditions, it is possible to get more energy than I consume in one month period!
Next, let us substitute the numbers with those obtained from the actual measurement.
So, we will still get 2500 volts. As to the amperes: we had 3.4; multiply 3.4 by 64 = 217.6; divide by 2 = 108.8 amperes. Then we multiply 2500 volts by 108.8 amperes = 272 kW*h.
Consequently, in one hour on a sunny summer day, we have actually received the amount of 272 kW*h; this is just a little bit less then the amount I consume in one month!
It is not too little after all!
- How is it even possible? – one might ask.
- I don’t know!
This is all that I can answer you at this point. May be those people, who were measuring, did not know how to use measuring devices in the first place, or they just do not know simple mathematics? I am reluctant to believe that this is just another primitive scientific fraud…
You can easily check my results by yourself. In order to do so, you will need one solar element and one multimeter. This is it. This is very easy and can be checked simply. Moreover, this is a real, live fact!
Next. Specialist, of course, had a skeptical smile on their faces, as they know that my results are utterly true, however, there is always a “but”!
Not a single one of the three existing electronic circuits – parallel, series and mixed – will not allow receiving this amount of watts from one square meter in practice.
For sure, we can get this amount of volts from one square meter in a series circuit of the solar elements.
For sure, we can get this amount of amperes from one square meter in a parallel circuit of the solar elements.
However, if we try practically rather than mathematically to connect volts with amperes, in order to get watts, we will definitely not succeed.
Even if we apply the mixed circuit to the connection of solar element, we will not be able to get the amount of watts that we obtained during the actual index measurement.
That is why all the specialists smile skeptically when they are looking at my measurements.
Now let us look practically at all known electrical circuits.
This is the series circuit.
With its help we can get all the volts, which the devices produce (it is not that important which devices specifically); in our case these are the solar elements.
This is the parallel circuit.
With its help we can get all the amperes, which the devices produce (it is not that important which devices specifically); in our case these are the solar elements.
This is the mixed circuit.
With it help…
What does logic tell us?
Logic tells us that if this type of circuit is called the mixed circuit, this means that with the help of this connection we are able to get both volts and amperes.
In practice, we will not get the addition of volts and amperes in the real conditions, and in present practical terms such as adding 2 + 2 equals 4!
Why are we not able to get them? We are taught that this in fact is the real mixed circuit.
It is true what we are taught in high school. Although, it is also true that by using this particular connection, in real conditions, we will not be able to add volts and amperes.
This is the main reason why all the specialists are skeptically smiling.
The have their truth, as they know and are able to do things they were taught to do!
Probably, they are just lazy from thinking… After studies, most likely, they mechanically perform their work duties; otherwise, they would have seen this illusion.
However, I have my truth too, as I know and I am able to do what these specialists and scientists cannot!
Did you manage to guess?
Correct, I have discovered a new type of connection, which allows us to connect volts with amperes! If we speak in scientific terms, I have created the real way of the mixed circuit connection.
Are you ashamed, field specialists?
Are you ashamed, scientists?
Ordinary Russian creative person not connected to physics in any way (I am a restorer by profession, and now also an inventor), have revealed the scientific delusion and found a new type and way of connection?
Fair enough that people say that discoveries are done only by geniuses (I do not argue with this presumption), but practically each specialist educated in this field should see the substitution, and I am not even talking about scientists and academics!
Otherwise, how can we even allowed to speak about the reliability of technical decisions and constructions?
Therefore, the type of connection, which nowadays is called the mixed circuit, is nothing more than a scientific trick with the substitution of concept.
Let us look deeper into the problem.
This is the scheme of a mixed circuit connection, as it is called today.
Look at it carefully with the aim of understanding why in real conditions this way of connection does not allow to add volts and amperes together.
Imagine that each of these four elements produces 1 volt and 1 ampere. This means that each element produces 1 watt. Altogether, we have 4 elements, so we have the total amount of 4 watts. However, mathematics is insistently telling us yet another thing: if at first we totalize the amount of volts – we will get 4 volts. Secondly, if we totalize the amperes, we will get 4 amperes. Finally, if we multiply volts and amperes, we will get the higher result of 16 watts, and not 4 watts as it was calculated before!
Therefore, by connecting these four elements in the correct way we can get the total amount of 16 watts.
Now, let us apply the practical approach.
If we adapt the series circuit, practically, we can get 4 volts and 1 ampere. It will be 4 watts. We lose three amperes, and receive for 12 watts less. It is a pity. Not that I am a greedy person, but it is truly a pity…
If we adapt the parallel circuit, practically, we can get 1 volt and 4 amperes. The result remains unchanged – we get the same amount of 4 watts. In this case, we also lose three amperes, and receive for 12 watts less. It is a pity…
Finally, let us try adapting the so-called mixed circuit. Here, practically, we will be able to get 2 volts and 2 amperes. As in both cases above, the result remains unchanged – total amount of 4 watts in the end. We receive for 2 volts, 2 amperes and 12 watts less. It is a pity…
At this point, I have to make a clarification. When I talk about “losing watts”, I mean that we are not able to connect any device or mechanism, which consumes 16 watts at once. We can attach and connect only those devices and mechanisms, which consume 4 watts. The rest 12 watts are not lost, of course, merely, their production is delayed in time.
However, in our case with the solar elements, these watts become lost and lost irreversibly.
Ergo, let us return to the mixed circuit.
By looking closely on the so-called mixed circuit, we are able to see that there are two types of connection present – the series circuit and the parallel circuit.
There is no third option!
First of all, two element are connected with the parallel circuit; secondly, two already combined elements are connected in series.
Voila! Twist of the wrist and no fraud!
Nevertheless, scientifically speaking, this is a pure concept substitution!
Still do not believe me?
Then I will give you the simplest evidence, which you can practically verify yourself.
You can see four elements on the pictures.
Now, in practice, take only two elements.
Practically, you can perform only two types of connections with two existing elements: the parallel circuit and the series circuit!
By no means will you be able to connect two elements with a mixed circuit!
As there is no such a notion as a mixed circuit!
That is all!
If the connection that nowadays is called a mixed circuit would actually exist, you would be able to connect two elements between themselves in the same manner as you perform parallel circuit and circuit in series, using only two elements.
Thereby, I have a question to ask: do these people that call themselves scientists have the right to have academic degrees, if they do not understand such simple things? Can a scientist be so narrow-minded and have no understanding? Is a scientist just a small, inattentive, impatient and uneducated child?! What are their academic degrees worth?!
The question then remains, how does really a mixed circuit look like?
Let us pay attention to the photo report. In the report, for extra clarity I have took two solar elements. One of the elements – the large one – produces few volts, but quite a number of amperes. The second element, on the contrary, produces more volts, but few amperes.
Please, do not pay attention to the quality of my solar elements. As I have never done this before, this is my first worker-pilot experimental version; that is why the elements have cracks and few burns.
The first two pictures show: solar element with the dimensions of 0.5 volts and 5.2 amperes; solar element with the dimensions of 5 volts and 45 mA (one ampere consists of 1000 miliamperes, and this element has only 45 miliamperes); matchbox for the caliber comparison; device that I have invented myself (accumulator).
Since the sunlight flow is constantly changing, all the measurements are taken under a regular table electric lamp, in order for them to be permanent.
On this picture, we can see how many miliamperes the large solar element produces under an electrical lamp. This is the amount of 68 mA (68 miliamperes).
On this picture, we can see how many volts the large solar element produces: total amount of 0.44 volts.
On this picture, we see how many volts the smaller solar element produces: the total amount of 4.54 volts.
On this picture, we see how many amperes the small solar element produces: the total amount of 1.49 mA (1.49 miliamperes).
On this picture, we seen how many volts the invented accumulator produces: the total amount of 0.87 volts.
On this picture, we see how many amperes the invented accumulator produces: total amount of 2.69 mA (2.69 miliamperes).
On this picture, in real conditions we see the action result of a real mixed circuit. The chain consists of a large and small solar elements (two as a total) connected together with the invented accumulator.
The result out of the invented accumulator is equal with 71.5 mA (71.5 miliamperes).
If we add the amperes from all three involved elements separately, we will get the following result: 2.69 + 1.49 + 68 = 72.18 mA (72.18 miliamperes).
By all means, it is not that bad!
This what a real mixed circuit looks like!
On the following picture in the real conditions, we see the action result of a real mixed circuit. The chain consists of a large and small solar elements (two as a total) connected together with the invented accumulator.
The result out of the invented accumulator is equal with 2.5 volts.
If we add the amperes from all three involved elements separately, we will get the following result: 0.44 + 4.54 + 0.87 = 5.85
By all means, it is not that bad!
This what a real mixed circuit looks like!
However, it is obvious that we have lost the half of the volts.
It is not as simple as it looks, as you can see that I have connected the light-emitting diode, which took these volts. The light-emitting diode is lighted up.
This part of the experiment is made in the daylight. The multimeter shows the measurements of 410 mA or 0.41 amperes.
This is made in the daylight as well. The multimeter shows the measurements of 4.57 volts.
Thereby, now we can really get the expected amount of the solar energy from one square meter!
Nowadays, the best field specialists with the best solar batteries in the ideal conditions are receiving 500 watts from one square meter.
My own discovery and personal invention allow me to receive the amount of 416 kW*h in the ideal conditions, using the most basic solar batteries.
One kilowatt has one thousand watts. It means that 500 watts is 0.5 of a kilowatt. Divide 416 kilowatts by 0.05 and receive 832 times.
Already today my discovery and own invention has increased the solar power efficiency in the ideal conditions 832 times!
Thereby, in order to receive the equal amount of energy, my method of the mixed circuit reduces the space taken by the solar batteries, as well as the number of the batteries themselves, than any other existing type of solar battery connection!
Most likely, it is not the revolution in the field of solar energetics, although it is clearly a great advantage!
However, the manufacturers of the solar elements should not worry. Despite the seeming reduction in demand for the solar elements, the consumption will definitely increase in numbers. The increase occurs, as it will become profitable for many people to have an individual solar power station.
In addition, I would like to highlight that those solar panels – panels, not solar elements, which are widely produced today by various manufacturers worldwide, are not suitable for the properly designed solar power station. This is the main reason why I make them myself.
The second edition of this book will include the detailed report on the creation and performance of individual solar power station. This power station is designed to meet the needs for electrical power of one family living in a city in the regular sleeping quarter. The power station will be placed on the outside part of the balcony, i.e. without any specially designed inclines or tracking of the solar activity. If necessary, the power station will be transported outside the city border: to the country house, trip to the nature, etc. Its area is only three square meters. Even though the area of the power station is relatively small, it is capable of covering the monthly needs in electrical energy in the amount of 300 kilowatts. Likewise, I will try to present various private power stations custom-made for different needs. Probably, I will also reveal a secret of a mixed circuit, if by that time the registration of the patent documentation will be finished.
If you are willing to support this project financially, do not deny yourself in this noble deed.
Together we can make the world a better place!
With the help of payment system PayPal,
you can transfer the desired amount of money.
PayPal for the - firstname.lastname@example.org
I am thankful to everybody who up until this moment supported and continues to support the development of this project, and I thank you for reading this book.
We will meet next time!
Wish you a lot of light and warmth!
Wish you fruitful discoveries and new inventions!