Russian Solar Energetics
Permission is granted for the distribution of the 1^{st} edition of
this book.
The book describes a scientific discovery and invention of the Russian inventor,
which in practice allowed to increase the efficiency of solar power stations
hundreds of times.
_______________________________________________________________
1^{st} edition
Riga, Latvia 2015, D.J. Kravchenko© ISBN 9789934144707
email: russolarenergy@gmail.com
________________________________________________________________________
Russian
Solar Energetics
or
How to Increase The Efficiency of
a Solar Power Station HUNDREDS OF
TIMES!
…I value a single experiment more,
than thousands of opinions,
created by imagination only.
…A lazy man in his dishonorable peace
is similar to motionless swamp water,
which produces nothing
but stench and despicable vermin
…If you do something good with hard work,
hardship will pass, but good deeds remain,
but if you make evil with delight,
delight will pass, but evil remain.
…Science is a clear cognition of the truth,
Enlightenment of mind, immaculate jollification of life,
Praising of youth, supporter of the senility, builder of the cities,
regiments, stability of success in misfortune,
in happiness – the embellishment, always loyal inalienable companion.
Mikhail
Vasilyevich Lomonosov
In the immense Space, among billions of other worlds, among infinite
numbers of different planets, elapses our tiny, defenseless, but glorious
planet Earth.
People that live on planet Earth, such as me and you, are not only lucky
residents of this small and gorgeous planet, but also the inhabitants of the
great Space.
Adequately, this fact of
belonging to the great Space lays on us the amount of certain responsibilities,
towards not only our close people and ourselves, but towards the planet and the
whole Space community.
At all times, the best
representatives of the humanity were trying to relieve and lighten the
terrestrial, physical human life. Only those, who were putting this noble goal
as the main priority, were able to make scientific discoveries that brought benefit
to the humankind and the surrounding environment. Only by virtue of these
brightest and greatest minds, modern humanity, without thinking much about the
initial origins of things, in the daily routine easily uses plumbing,
electricity, telephony, television, etc.,
Indeed, it becomes impossible
to reveal something precious and valuable to a person, who puts the need for
material welfare on the pedestal of his life. That is what the history of
mankind is proving and demonstrating to us. In truth, it is physically impossible
that a certain person with only physical needs in his life, who is in the
constant pursuit of the material wellbeing, ignoring his close people, his
planet and even the Space, would have a lively mind capable of scientific
discoveries beneficial to the whole human race.
However, the deal is
completely different with the best representatives of the humankind. Not for
even a single day they stop their scientificallycreative practice in various
spheres of life, in order to discover something new, or to improve already
existing things for the sake of mankind, the planet and most certainly the Space.
One of these spheres of life
is energetics. It is safe to say that energetics is the integral part of the
very basis of life.
Truly, human being is using
energy since the ancient times up to the present days.
The fire was used from the
beginning, and later on new possibilities were discovered. Finally, nowadays
the main type of energy used by man – is the electrical energy. Electricity is
essential even for coal mining and refining, as well as oil and gas production
Not a single educated
individual will have doubts about the vitality of electrical energy, and the
fact that without it, our modern life would be impossible. Furthermore, year
after year the need of the electrical energy is continuously growing. Only in
the last fifty years, the consumption of the electrical energy has increased fourfold.
That is the reason why in this
field the constant scientifically creative research takes place, in order to
find new innovative solutions not only for satisfying the growing demands of the
humanity, but also for natural and ecological safety. Nature herself daily
reminds us about the importance of the ecological safety, and unobtrusively
shows us the right way to the development of clean and safe energetics.
One of these ecologically pure
and renewable directions of energetics is the one that is called solar power,
or precisely – photovoltaics – the solar power stations.
Solar power stations consist of solar batteries, accumulators, inverters
and other necessary equipment.
Solar battery – is
the combination of several
photoelectric cells that directly convert solar energy into electric current.
Photovoltaics – is the method of electrical energy
production, by using photosensitive elements for the direct conversion of solar
energy to electricity.
Photoelectric cell (photocell)  electronic device, which directly
converts photon energy to electrical power.
A Russian physicist – Alexander
Grigorievich Stoletov, created the first photoelectric cell based on the
external photoelectric effect, in the end of the 19th century.
So far, there are several
variations of solar power stations that are being developed:
Individual (private)
solar power stations of low capacity.
Commercial
solar power stations of low and medium capacity.
Industrial solar
power stations.
In contrast to other
ecological and renewable trends, solar energetics has a significant advantage,
as it is quite mobile. This means that every person possessing his own solar
power station that covers one man’s needs in energy, can easily pack it up and
relocate to any other place of choice.
Another important advantages
of solar energetics that are worth mentioning, are its complete quietness
(there are no moving mechanisms), and of course its aesthetic exterior.
Yet another notional advantage
in addition to everything mentioned before, is that only a small percentage of
all the sunny days is enough for providing an amount if energy for the whole
year. The main point here is to properly collect and preserve the energy. The
use of only 0.0125% of the solar energy, could procure all current needs and
demands of global energetics.
By having a solar battery,
practically every individual can obtain his personal and independent source of
electrical energy. The attachment of the accumulator to the solar battery
creates possibilities of amassing the surpluses of energy, ensuring the
household with electrical power during the nighttime and rainy days. By adding
the inverter to the scheme, the direct electrical energy produced by the solar elements
can be converted into alternating energy. Accordingly, by purchasing solar
panels, accumulators and an inventor, we obtain a very real private solar power
station.
Moreover, we get a power
station that can provide us with two types of electrical energy at once: both with
direct and with alternating current.
This fact is also one of the
most important advantages of solar power stations. For instance, we can use direct
current electricity straight for heating, which considerably reduces the costs
of this particular need, since it eliminates the necessity of additional
electrical devices.
Efficiency of the solar power
station depends mostly on two technical factors (if we are not taking into
account the environmental factors, as it was mentioned above):
The first factor is the
ability to receive and convert solar energy to electrical energy.
The second factor is the
ability of properly containing the received and converted solar energy.
With reference to the first
technical factor – the ability of receiving and converting solar energy, so far
nowadays the efficiency of solar panels (photovoltaic elements) lies within the
range of 25%.
Official science reports:
The maximal flow of the solar
radiation on equator is only 1020 W/m^{2}. Average daily rates will be
even lower (approximately three times lower), due to the fact that there is a change
between day and night, as well as because of the changes in the inclination
angle of the solar flow. During the wintertime these indicators are reduced
even more, in about two or three times.
Let us divide the rate of 1020
W/m^{2} by three (the change of night and day) and we will get 340 W/m^{2}
in a sunny day.
If we divide this number by
three again, then we will receive 113 W/m^{2} during a winter day.
The number seem to be not that
large, especially in comparison with the wind energetics. However, do not
hesitate with the conclusions. Precisely in this place on the level of
receiving the energy, I have made a new scientific discovery and created a new
invention, which allows to raise the efficiency of solar power stations several
times, and to reduce their sizes significantly. More detailed information on
that aspect will come later.
In regards to the second
factor of proper energy contain, everything seems to be much better. Better,
but not ideal. That is why, working in this direction as well, another new
invention had been created by myself that can help improving the factor of
appropriate energy storage.
Economic efficiency of the
solar power station can be measured by the voltampere characteristics, i.e.
how many kilowatts of electrical energy does it produce, and how much funds
should be spent on its purchase.
Right here in this place starts
the most interesting part.
We have already been
acquainted with the official science report on the matter.
Now, let us conduct a
practical experiment.
We will take one solar element
made from monocrystalline silicon. Its standard properties, i.e. what it is
capable of, are as following:
Volts – 0.5
Amperes – 5.2
Watts – 2.6
Size – 12.5 cm ^{x}
12.5 cm
(a square with sloping angles, as shown on the picture
below)
During a sunny
summer day with a light cloudiness, I have took the measurements and here are
the results:
Volts – 0.5
Amperes – 3.4
Watts – 1.7
Therefore, on the
area of 156.25 (12.5 ^{x} 12.5) square centimeters we get 1.7 watts.
One square meter
is 10000 (ten thousand) square centimeters.
Accordingly,
from one square meter we would get: 10000 divided by 156.25 = 64.
64 ^{x}
1.7 = 108.8 watts.
Afterwards I
took another solar element.
Its properties
are:
Volts – 5.0
Amperes – 45 mA
Watts – 0.225
Size – 6 cm ^{x} 4 cm or 25 square centimeters.
The received
results:
Volts – 5
Amperes – 45 mA
Watts – 0.225
From one square
meter we will get: 10000 divided by 24 = 416 ^{x} 0.225 = 93.6 watts.
It appears to be
completely correct and everything is in order.
But!
These results
become possible when we are using purely mathematical approach, without taking
into consideration the real conditions.
What happens in
reality?
In reality we
have volts and amperes, from which we obtain watts.
Let us try
measuring once again, but this time in the correct way.
Ergo, on 156.25
square centimeters we obtain 0.5 volts and 3.4 amperes. On one square meter of the
similar elements will fit about: 100 divided by 12.5 = 8. 8 ^{x} 8 = 64
pieces.
EACH ONE of
these 64 elements produces 0.5 volts and 3.4 amperes.
If we connect all
solar elements in series or parallel, we would still get the amount of 105.8
watts.
Now let us break
one big element into smaller pieces and measure the indicators of these broken
parts. The number of pieces after the arbitrary breaking of the solar element
is not relevant to the case.
When we randomly
break one of the elements, we will get an amount of smaller pieces that differ
in size. After measuring the performance of these smaller pieces, it is
possible to see that all of them have different ampere indexes and equal volt
indexes. All the pieces, regardless of their size, will show 0.5 volts.
Thereby, from
this practical experiment we see that every square centimeter produces 0.5
volts. I did not break the elements into even tinier pieces, which is why this value
will remain basic for now. One square meter has 10000 square centimeters.
This means that
by connecting the elements in series, from the surface of one square meter,
practically, it becomes possible to receive 10000 x 0.5 = 5000 volts.
Remember this
value of 5000 (five thousand) volts.
The question is
how many amperes can we possibly get from the surface of one square meter?
In order to
check it, we do not have to break anything.
Why not?
This is because
when we were taking measurements from the broken small parts, the smaller the
part was the less amperes it was producing. Consequently, the smaller the
actual area is, the less amperes we receive.
Thus, we need to
take the basic value of 5.2 amperes of one solar element with the size of 12.5
cm ^{x} 12.5 cm.
One square meter
of these elements contains 100 cm, divided by 12.5 cm = 8; multiply the value by 8 = 64. One square meter of
solar elements with the dimensions of 12.5 cm, will contain 64 pieces.
The next step is
to multiply 64 pieces by 5.2 amperes, and we will get an approximate value of
332.8 amperes.
Voila!
Thereby, in
practice, we see that if we connect the solar elements parallel, we will be
able to get an approximate value of 332.8 amperes from one square meter.
So how much
electrical energy converted from the solar energy, can we realistically rather
than mathematically, get from one square meter?
In order to find
an answer for this question, we need to take half of a square meter with volts,
which has a value of 2500 volts, and half a square meter with amperes, which
will have a value of 166.4 amperes. The next step is to multiply 2500 volts by
166.4 amperes, and we will get 416 kW*h.
Ergo,
realistically rather than hypothetically and mathematically, from one square
meter we can get the approximate amount of 416 (four hundred sixteen) kilowatt
per hour!
At the same
time, this is only 25% of all possibly produced energy due to the low efficiency
of solar element. However, technologies are developing and constantly moving
forward.
So is 25% too
much or too little?
In comparison, I
will point that my monthly consumption of electrical energy is about 300 – 350
kW. Therefore, my daily consumption is: 300 divided by 30 days = 10 kW. My
hourly consumption is: 10 kW divided by 24 hours = 0.416 kW*h. It is
understandable that this consumption is occurring irregularly, but this is
already a completely different question.
It is not too
little after all!
Just in one hour
from one square meter, although under the ideal conditions, it is possible to
get more energy than I consume in one month period!
Next, let us
substitute the numbers with those obtained from the actual measurement.
So, we will still
get 2500 volts. As to the amperes: we had 3.4; multiply 3.4 by 64 = 217.6;
divide by 2 = 108.8 amperes. Then we multiply 2500 volts by 108.8 amperes = 272
kW*h.
Consequently, in
one hour on a sunny summer day, we have actually received the amount of 272
kW*h; this is just a little bit less then the amount I consume in one month!
It is not too
little after all!

How is it even
possible? – one might ask.

I don’t know!
This is all that
I can answer you at this point. May be those people, who were measuring, did
not know how to use measuring devices in the first place, or they just do not
know simple mathematics? I am reluctant to believe that this is just another
primitive scientific fraud…
You can easily
check my results by yourself. In order to do so, you will need one solar
element and one multimeter. This is it. This is very easy and can be checked
simply. Moreover, this is a real, live fact!
Next.
Specialist, of course, had a skeptical smile on their faces, as they know that
my results are utterly true, however, there is always a “but”!
Not a single one
of the three existing electronic circuits – parallel, series and mixed – will
not allow receiving this amount of watts from one square meter in practice.
For sure, we can
get this amount of volts from one square meter in a series circuit of the solar
elements.
For sure, we can
get this amount of amperes from one square meter in a parallel circuit of the
solar elements.
However, if we
try practically rather than mathematically to connect volts with amperes, in
order to get watts, we will definitely not succeed.
Even if we apply
the mixed circuit to the connection of solar element, we will not be able to
get the amount of watts that we obtained during the actual index measurement.
That is why all
the specialists smile skeptically when they are looking at my measurements.
Now let us look
practically at all known electrical circuits.
This is the
series circuit.
With its help we
can get all the volts, which the devices produce (it is not that important
which devices specifically); in our case these are the solar elements.
This is the
parallel circuit.
With its help we
can get all the amperes, which the devices produce (it is not that important
which devices specifically); in our case these are the solar elements.
This is the mixed circuit.
With it help…
What does logic
tell us?
Correct!
Logic tells us
that if this type of circuit is called the mixed circuit, this means that with
the help of this connection we are able to get both volts and amperes.
But!
In practice, we
will not get the addition of volts and amperes in the real conditions, and in
present practical terms such as adding 2 + 2 equals 4!
Why are we not able to get them? We are taught
that this in fact is the real mixed circuit.
It is true what
we are taught in high school. Although, it is also true that by using this
particular connection, in real conditions, we will not be able to add volts and
amperes.
This is the main
reason why all the specialists are skeptically smiling.
The have their
truth, as they know and are able to do things they were taught to do!
Probably, they
are just lazy from thinking… After studies, most likely, they mechanically
perform their work duties; otherwise, they would have seen this illusion.
However, I have my truth too, as I know and I
am able to do what these specialists and scientists cannot!
Did you manage
to guess?
Correct, I have
discovered a new type of connection, which allows us to connect volts with
amperes! If we speak in scientific terms, I have created the real way of the
mixed circuit connection.
Are you ashamed,
field specialists?
Are you ashamed,
scientists?
Ordinary Russian
creative person not connected to physics in any way (I am a restorer by
profession, and now also an inventor), have revealed the scientific delusion
and found a new type and way of connection?
Fair enough that
people say that discoveries are done only by geniuses (I do not argue with this
presumption), but practically each specialist educated in this field should see
the substitution, and I am not even talking about scientists and academics!
Otherwise, how
can we even allowed to speak about the reliability of technical decisions and
constructions?
Therefore, the
type of connection, which nowadays is called the mixed circuit, is nothing more
than a scientific trick with the substitution of concept.
Let us look
deeper into the problem.
This is the
scheme of a mixed circuit connection, as it is called today.
Look at it
carefully with the aim of understanding why in real conditions this way of
connection does not allow to add volts and amperes together.
Imagine that
each of these four elements produces 1 volt and 1 ampere. This means that each
element produces 1 watt. Altogether, we have 4 elements, so we have the total
amount of 4 watts. However, mathematics is insistently telling us yet another
thing: if at first we totalize the amount of volts – we will get 4 volts.
Secondly, if we totalize the amperes, we will get 4 amperes. Finally, if we
multiply volts and amperes, we will get the higher result of 16 watts, and not
4 watts as it was calculated before!
Therefore, by
connecting these four elements in the correct way we can get the total amount
of 16 watts.
Now, let us
apply the practical approach.
If we adapt the
series circuit, practically, we can get 4 volts and 1 ampere. It will be
4 watts. We lose three amperes, and receive for 12 watts less. It is a pity. Not
that I am a greedy person, but it is truly a pity…
If we adapt the
parallel circuit, practically, we can get 1 volt and 4 amperes. The result
remains unchanged – we get the same amount of 4 watts. In this case, we also
lose three amperes, and receive for 12 watts less. It is a pity…
Finally, let us
try adapting the socalled mixed circuit. Here, practically, we will be able to
get 2 volts and 2 amperes. As in both cases above, the result remains unchanged
– total amount of 4 watts in the end. We receive for 2 volts, 2 amperes and 12
watts less. It is a pity…
At this point, I
have to make a clarification. When I talk about “losing watts”, I mean that we
are not able to connect any device or mechanism, which consumes 16 watts at
once. We can attach and connect only those devices and mechanisms, which
consume 4 watts. The rest 12 watts are not lost, of course, merely, their
production is delayed in time.
However, in our
case with the solar elements, these watts become lost and lost irreversibly.
Ergo, let us
return to the mixed circuit.
By looking
closely on the socalled mixed circuit, we are able to see that there are two
types of connection present – the series circuit and the parallel circuit.
There is no
third option!
First of all,
two element are connected with the parallel circuit; secondly, two already
combined elements are connected in series.
Voila! Twist of
the wrist and no fraud!
Nevertheless,
scientifically speaking, this is a pure concept substitution!
Still do not
believe me?
Then I will give
you the simplest evidence, which you can practically verify yourself.
You can see four
elements on the pictures.
Now, in practice,
take only two elements.
Practically, you
can perform only two types of connections with two existing elements: the
parallel circuit and the series circuit!
By no means will
you be able to connect two elements with a mixed circuit!
Why not?
As there is no such
a notion as a mixed circuit!
That is all!
If the
connection that nowadays is called a mixed circuit would actually exist, you
would be able to connect two elements between themselves in the same manner as
you perform parallel circuit and circuit in series, using only two elements.
Thereby, I have
a question to ask: do these people that call themselves scientists have the
right to have academic degrees, if they do not understand such simple things?
Can a scientist be so narrowminded and have no understanding? Is a scientist
just a small, inattentive, impatient and uneducated child?! What are their
academic degrees worth?!
The question
then remains, how does really a mixed circuit look like?
Let us pay
attention to the photo report. In the report, for extra clarity I have took two
solar elements. One of the elements – the large one – produces few volts, but
quite a number of amperes. The second element, on the contrary, produces more
volts, but few amperes.
P.S.
Please, do not
pay attention to the quality of my solar elements. As I have never done this
before, this is my first workerpilot experimental version; that is why the
elements have cracks and few burns.
The first two
pictures show: solar element with the dimensions of 0.5 volts and 5.2 amperes;
solar element with the dimensions of 5 volts and 45 mA (one ampere consists of
1000 miliamperes, and this element has only 45 miliamperes); matchbox for the
caliber comparison; device that I have invented myself (accumulator).
Since the sunlight
flow is constantly changing, all the measurements are taken under a regular
table electric lamp, in order for them to be permanent.
On this picture,
we can see how many miliamperes the large solar element produces under an
electrical lamp. This is the amount of 68 mA (68 miliamperes).
On this picture, we can see how many volts the large solar element produces: total amount of 0.44 volts.
On this picture,
we see how many volts the smaller solar element produces: the total amount of
4.54 volts.
On this picture, we see how many amperes the small
solar element produces: the total amount of 1.49 mA (1.49 miliamperes).
On this picture, we seen how many volts the invented
accumulator produces: the total amount of 0.87 volts.
On this picture, we see how many amperes the invented accumulator produces: total amount of 2.69 mA (2.69 miliamperes).
On this picture,
in real conditions we see the action result of a real mixed circuit. The chain
consists of a large and small solar elements (two as a total) connected together
with the invented accumulator.
The result out
of the invented accumulator is equal with 71.5 mA (71.5 miliamperes).
If we add the
amperes from all three involved elements separately, we will get the following
result: 2.69 + 1.49 + 68 = 72.18 mA (72.18 miliamperes).
By all means, it
is not that bad!
This what a real mixed circuit looks like!
On the
following picture in the real conditions, we see the action result of a real mixed circuit. The chain consists of a large
and small solar elements (two as a total) connected together with the invented
accumulator.
The result out
of the invented accumulator is equal with 2.5 volts.
If we add the
amperes from all three involved elements separately, we will get the following
result: 0.44 + 4.54 + 0.87 = 5.85
By all means, it
is not that bad!
This what a real
mixed circuit looks like!
However, it is
obvious that we have lost the half of the volts.
It is not as
simple as it looks, as you can see that I have connected the lightemitting
diode, which took these volts. The lightemitting diode is lighted up.
This part of the experiment is made in the daylight. The multimeter shows the measurements of 410 mA or 0.41 amperes.
This is made in the daylight as well. The multimeter
shows the measurements of 4.57 volts.
Thereby, now we
can really get the expected amount of the solar energy from one square meter!
Nowadays, the
best field specialists with the best solar batteries in the ideal conditions
are receiving 500 watts from one square meter.
My own discovery
and personal invention allow me to receive the amount of 416 kW*h in the ideal
conditions, using the most basic solar batteries.
One kilowatt has
one thousand watts. It means that 500 watts is 0.5 of a kilowatt. Divide 416
kilowatts by 0.05 and receive 832 times.
Already today my
discovery and own invention has increased the solar power efficiency in the
ideal conditions 832 times!
Thereby, in order
to receive the equal amount of energy, my method of the mixed circuit reduces
the space taken by the solar batteries, as well as the number of the batteries
themselves, than any other existing type of solar battery connection!
Most likely, it
is not the revolution in the field of solar energetics, although it is clearly
a great advantage!
However, the
manufacturers of the solar elements should not worry. Despite the seeming
reduction in demand for the solar elements, the consumption will definitely increase
in numbers. The increase occurs, as it will become profitable for many people
to have an individual solar power station.
In addition, I would like to highlight that
those solar panels – panels, not solar elements, which are widely produced
today by various manufacturers worldwide, are not suitable for the properly
designed solar power station. This is the main reason why I make them myself.
The second
edition of this book will include the detailed report on the creation and
performance of individual solar power station. This power station is designed
to meet the needs for electrical power of one family living in a city in the
regular sleeping quarter. The power station will be placed on the outside part
of the balcony, i.e. without any specially designed inclines or tracking of the
solar activity. If necessary, the power station will be transported outside the
city border: to the country house, trip to the nature, etc. Its area is only three
square meters. Even though the area of the power station is relatively small,
it is capable of covering the monthly needs in electrical energy in the amount
of 300 kilowatts. Likewise, I will try to present various private power
stations custommade for different needs. Probably, I will also reveal a secret
of a mixed circuit, if by that time the registration of the patent
documentation will be finished.
If you are willing to support this project
financially, do not deny yourself in this noble deed.
Together we can make the world a better place!
you can transfer the desired amount of money.
PayPal for the  dshursha@gmail.com
I am thankful to everybody who up until this moment
supported and continues to support the development of this project, and I thank
you for reading this book.
We will meet next time!
Wish you a lot of light and warmth!
Wish you fruitful discoveries and new inventions!